The sacred #car_modified by #foreign_folk_ masters will make all factories
Car tuning is the modification of a car to optimise it for a different set of performance requirements from those it was originally designed to meet. Most commonly this is higher engine performance and dynamic handling characteristics but cars may also be altered to provide better fuel economy, or smoother response.Tuning is the improvement of a vehicle’s overall performance in response to the user’s needs. Often, tuning is done at the expense of emissions performance, component reliability and occupant comfort.

A tuned BMW E36 Drift Car by JOZ Garage

As a culture has grown around modified cars the term tuning has grown to encompass the cosmetic and stylistic changes owners make to personalize their vehicles. These changes can range from functional modifications designed to improve the performance or functionality of the car, to visual modifications which alter the aesthetics of the car and, in the case of certain mods, sometimes be detrimental to the performance or functionality of the car.

Car tuning is related to auto racing, although many tuned cars do not compete in any form of sanctioned racing.
Modified cars can be significantly different from their stock counterparts. A common factor among owners/modifiers is to emulate the visual and/or performance characteristics of established styles and design principles. These similarities may be unintentional. Some of the many different styles and visual influences to car modification are:

An example of a Rat rod style car

Rat rod: Style of hot rod and custom cars, imitating the “unfinished” appearance of some hot rods in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. “Rat style” also defines a car that is kept on the road despite visible heavy wear.Euro style: Stanced with one-off paint and small wheels, with shaved features to define car body lines.Lowrider: Hydraulic or airbag suspension setups, custom paint, pinstriping, custom interior, and, typically, small diameter wire wheels. Others may look like straight restorations, aside from a low stance.Import or JDM: Japanese-style vehicles, aftermarket parts and race details.Dub or donk: Characterized by extremely large, ostentatious wheels with low-profile tires, loud speaker setups, and abnormally high ride height.Slab: Originated in the Houston area since the mid-1980s—usually, a full-size American luxury car is fitted with custom “elbows”, a type of extended wire wheels which protrude out from the fenders, loud speaker setups, and neon signage inside the trunk panel. Other “slab” modifications include hydraulic-actuated trunk panels (a “pop trunk”), candy paint, vertical stainless steel trim on the trunk panel (known as “belt buckles”), aftermarket grille, and the use of a Cadillac front-end sheet metal conversion. The interiors of slabs are usually clad in beige or tan (in what is called a “peanut butter interior”). Usually associated with Houston hip hop music.Bōsōzoku: This Japanese motorbike style features additional fairings and exaggerated exhausts.VIP style: A Japanese style of customizing luxury cars that evolved from Bōsōzoku.

A stanced MK3 Volkswagen Polo with aftermarket air suspension, light blue paint and BBS RM wheels with negative camber.

Stanced: This style is mostly associated with sports and passenger cars with lowered suspension setups. Custom wheels with low-profile tires play a large role in this style and often feature aggressive sizes, offsets, and camber.Cal look: A modified classic Volkswagen intended to evoke California through the use of bright colours, trim, and accessories.Military/service style: Cars designed to look like certain service vehicles.Hot rod: Style largely consisting of period-specific vehicles, components, and finishes to reproduce characteristics of early drag cars from the 1930s and 1940s.Custom car: Cars built primarily to show off.Sleeper: Stock-looking cars with performance upgrades.
A Nissan 350Z modified for drifting.

Rally car: Cars built to compete in rallies.Drift car: Cars engineered for drifting.Drag car: Cars modified for straight-line speed and acceleration.South London look: Subtly modified 50’s-70’s British Fords that are lowered, with pastel paint and 13 inch Lotus Cortina steel wheels or RS, Minilite, or Revolution mag wheels. These cars often use a tuned Ford Kent or Pinto engine.German look: A Volkswagen Type 1, Type 3, or Karmann Ghia lowered and fitted with late model Porsche mag wheels and touring car-influenced styling. Heavily modified suspension and drivetrain with emphasis on handling and cornering.